The terms microcontroller and microprocessor often end up racking peoples’ brains out. They get baffled between the two, owing to the many common features they possess. However, there stands some significant differences between them.
A microprocessor is an Integrated Circuit which holds only the processing powers with it and hence, has only a CPU inside it. It doesn’t have a RAM, ROM, and other peripheral on the chip and therefore, a system designer has to add them externally to make them functional. It is designed to achieve unspecific tasks like developing software, games, websites, photo editing, creating documents etc and hence its applications includes desktop PC’s, laptops, notepads etc. For example, Intel Pentium CPU
Micro controller, on the other hand, has a CPU, along with a fixed amount of RAM, ROM and other peripherals all embedded on a single chip. This, in turn, reduces the size and the cost of the device. At times, it is also termed as a 'mini computer’ or ‘a computer on a single chip’. Micro controllers are designed to perform specific tasks where the relationship of input and output is defined. Its applications include keyboards, mouse, washing machine, digicam, pen drive, remote, microwave etc. For example, Raspberry Pi, Arduino Uno